Ceramic Foam Filter Sverdlovsk Oblast adopts a new process of precipitation + microporous Ceramic Filter element, which is novel in design, simple in structure, economical and practical, and can float and melt solid impurities in aluminum.
Ceramic Foam Filter Sverdlovsk Oblast uses polyurethane Foam as the carrier to fill Ceramic slurry made of fine powder such as refractory aggregate sintering agent and binder and water, and then extruded the slurry ceramic material around foam fibers.
Polyurethane after drying, firing, high-temperature sintering, heat decomposition, leaving foam ceramic products, namely foam ceramic filters.
The lowest-cost smelters are located in the Persian Gulf, Canada, Russia, Iceland, and South Africa, with current production costs ranging from $1,100 to $1,450 per tonne.
The Ma’aden smelter in Saudi Arabia, with a capacity of 740 kT/y, is the lowest-cost smelter in the world (around us $1,050 – US $1,100 / t), according to 25% owned by Alcoa.
The claim is based on their own low-cost alumina, power, and anode production, as well as other relatively high production.
According to the authors, the lowest-cost smelter in the world is located in Canada, ahead of all Kitimat smelters (owned by Rio Tinto Alcan), because of their low electricity costs.
Compared with 2012, China’s new smelters also joined the ranks of low-cost smelters, starting in the northwestern province of Xinjiang, where electricity costs are low (due to low coal prices) and new low-cost technologies consume less than 13,000 kWh. Aluminum per tonne produced).
Chinese smelters are notoriously at the top of the cost curve. Compared to the LME price, the profit of these Chinese low-cost smelters (~ $1450 /tonne) is equivalent to the world’s smelter cost (US$1100 — 1200 /tonne) tonne compared to the minimum, if one allows for the aluminum price being several hundred DOLLARS higher in the Chinese market (Shanghai Stock Exchange).
Marginal smelter production costs have also fallen over the past four years, from nearly $3,000 per tonne to around $2,250 per tonne.
Electricity costs vary by region, from around $20 / MWH in the Middle East to around $35-40 / MWH in the US and Europe, and around $55 / MWH in China.
Implement electricity price subsidy. Starting on January 1, 2016, the Chinese government has again reduced the on-grid electricity price for coal by 0.03 yuan/KWH (us $4.6 / MWH).
According to CRU, primary aluminum production based on spontaneous electricity accounted for 62 percent of total production in China in 2015. China’s smelters, which have their own power plants, have benefited from weak coal prices in recent years.
If coal prices remain weak and the power market is unconstrained, large end-users of electricity, including aluminum smelters, will be able to sign better power supply deals.